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Checklist of the Ciidae of Switzerland, Reibnitz, 2011

Po Valley forest, in Italy

ABSTRACT
All species of Ciidae are mycetophagous.They occur in several species of fungi and some are even monophagous. Quite often, several species of Ciidae occur syntopically and synchronically in the same fungus. In Italy 49 species of Ciidae are known, whereas 9 species are hitherto recorded from the “Bosco della Fontana” nature reserve: Sulcacis affinis, S. fronticornis, Octotemnus glabriculus, Cis comptus, C. hispidus, C. boleti, Orthocis pygmaeus,O. lucasi and Ennearthron cornutum. There are certainly more species to be detected in this reserve.

INTRODUCTION

The adult Ciidae are small (1–4 mm), mostly cylindrical, brown to black beetles. Different species are sometimes morphologically very similar to each other.
They can easily be distinguished from other families by the morphology of the antennae (8 to 10 segmented with 3, rarely 2, enlarged terminal segments) and tarsi (4 tarsomeres with a greatly enlarged claw). Most species are more or less covered with hairs or scales. The clypeus of males often carries small teeth or lamellae, and sometimes even the scutellum shows such features. The first sternite often carries a wart-like structure in the shape of a navel or a “u”, and is generally pubescent (Lohse 1967).

Larvae are longish and cylindrical, white to yellow and sometimes covered with bristles. The head, mouthparts, claws, the last three abdominal tergites and the urogomphi, which originate on the 9th abdominal segment, are more or less heavily sclerotized.
On either side of the head capsule 2–5 semmata are present. All three pairs of legs are well-developed and are in many species suitable for walking outside the larval habitat. The urogomphi are very characteristic in number, composition and form, and can be used for the distinction of species (Holter et al. 1999).
Both the larvae and adults are mycetophagous and spend their entire life-cycle (except for a short swarming phase) in polypores or (more rarely) in wood attacked by xylotrophic fungi as well as under bark carrying fungi. In some fungus species a number of species of Ciidae can coexist, often in large populations. Other fungi are inhabited by a single, specialized ciid species (cf. Lohse 1967; Reibnitz
1999).

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