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The Phylogeny of the Ciidae

A Contribution to the Phylogeny of the Ciidae and its Relationships with Other Cucujoid and Tenebrionoid Beetles (Coleoptera: Cucujiformia)
GERDA BUDER, CHRISTIN GROSSMANN, ANNA HUNDSDOERFER & KLAUS-DIETER KLASS
*
State Natural History Collections Dresden, Museum of Zoology, Königsbrücker Landstrasse 159, 01109 Dresden, Germany
[gerda.buder@snsd.smwk.sachsen.de], [christin.grossmann@snsd.smwk.sachsen.de],
[anna.hundsdoerfer@snsd.smwk.sachsen.de], [klaus.klass@snsd.smwk.sachsen.de]
*
Corresponding author (all authors contributed equally to this study)
Received 12.vi.2008, accepted 10.x.2008.
Published online at www.arthropod-systematics.de on 05.xii.2008.
Abstract
In order to study phylogenetic relationships in Ciidae, test its monophyly, and resolve its position within Cucujiformia, we sampled 20 species from 12 genera of Ciidae (Sphindocis not included), 27 species from 20 other families of Cucujoidea and Tenebrionoidea, 2 species from the cleroid family Trogossitidae (all Cucujiformia), and a bostrichid (Bostrichiformia).
We analysed 18S, COI, and – for Ciidae – COII sequences according to maximum parsimony (fixed alignment with equal and differentiated weighting, and partial direct optimization), maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methodology, all applied to three different subsets of the taxon sample. Saturation curves indicate that 18S, COI, and COII are informative at the systematic levels in question.

We demonstrate that the extent to which a particular subgroup is sampled can strongly influence
the phylogenetic results, even in distant corners of the tree. Ciidae is obtained as monophyletic. We find non-monophyly for the speciose genus Cis, and for Sulcacis.

Different analyses suggest either Ropalodontus, or Sulcacis fronticornis + Xylographus + Octotemnus, or Sulcacis fronticornis + Xylographus alone as the sister group of the remaining Ciidae. Apart from
a clade Sulcacis fronticornis + Xylographus the results for inter-generic relationships in Ciidae vary strongly with the analytical methods and taxon sampling.

Different analyses place Ciidae as sister to Nitidulidae or far basally and isolated in the cucujoid-tenebrionoid assemblage. Regarding the phylogeny of the cucujoid-tenebrionoid assemblage, resolution is mostly conflicting. Yet, monophyly is supported for Sphindidae, Cryptophagidae, Tenebrionidae, Coccinellidae + Endomychidae, and Tetratomidae + Anthicidae + Monotomidae. Altogether, families from Cucujoidea and Tenebrionoidea are fairly mixed up in our trees, and the cleroid Trogossitidae falls within the cucujoid-tenebrionoid assemblage.

 

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